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Know More About Thermal Conductivity

Writer: admin;   Source: sinoguide;   Date:2016-05-24

pcb thermal new floor
Thermal conductivity is a material property describing the ability to conduct heat. Thermal conductivity can be defined as

"the quantity of heat transmitted through a unit thickness of a material - in a direction normal to a surface of unit area - due to a unit temperature gradient under steady state conditions"

Thermal conductivity units is W/(m K) in the SI system and Btu/(hr ft °F) in the Imperial system.


 

Thermal Conductivity 
- k - 
W/(m K)
Material/Substance Temperature - oC
25 125 225
Acetals 0.23  
Acetone 0.16    
Acetylene (gas) 0.018    
Acrylic 0.2    
Air, atmosphere (gas) 0.024    
Air, elevation 10000 m 0.020    
Alcohol 0.17    
Aluminum 205 215 250
Aluminum Brass 121    
Aluminum Oxide 30    
Ammonia (gas) 0.022    
Antimony 18.5    
Apple (85.6% moisture) 0.39    
Argon (gas) 0.016    
Asbestos-cement board 0.744    
Asbestos-cement sheets 0.166    
Asbestos-cement 2.07    
Asbestos, loosely packed 0.15    
Asbestos mill board 0.14    
Asphalt 0.75    
Balsa wood 0.048    
Bitumen 0.17    
Bitumen/felt layers 0.5    
Beef, lean (78.9 % moisture) 0.43 - 0.48    
Benzene 0.16    
Beryllium 218    
Bitumen 0.17    
Blast furnace gas (gas) 0.02    
Brass 109    
Breeze block 0.10 - 0.20    
Brick dense 1.31    
Brick, insulating 0.15    
Brickwork, common (Building Brick) 0.6 -1.0    
Brickwork, dense 1.6    
Bromine (gas) 0.004    
Bronze 110    
Butter (15% moisture content) 0.20    
Cadmium 92    
Calcium silicate 0.05    
Carbon 1.7    
Carbon dioxide (gas) 0.0146    
Carbon monoxide 0.0232    
Cellulose, cotton, wood pulp and regenerated 0.23    

Cellulose acetate, molded, sheet

0.17 - 0.33    
Cellulose nitrate, celluloid 0.12 - 0.21    
Cement, portland 0.29    
Cement, mortar 1.73    
Chalk 0. 09    
Charcoal 0.2    
Chlorinated poly-ether 0.13    
Chlorine (gas) 0.0081    
Chrome Nickel Steel (18% Cr, 8 % Ni) 16.3    
Chromium 94    
Clay, dry to moist 0.15 - 1.8    
Clay, saturated 0.6 - 2.5    
Coal 0.2    
Cobalt 69    
Cod (83% moisture content) 0.54    
Concrete, lightweight 0.1 - 0.3    
Concrete, medium 0.4 - 0.7    
Concrete, dense 1.0 - 1.8    
Concrete, stone 1.7    
Constantan 22    
Copper 401 400 398
Corian (ceramic filled) 1.06    
Cork board 0.043    
Cork, re-granulated 0.044    
Cork 0.07    
Cotton 0.04    
Cotton wool 0.029    
Carbon Steel 54 51 47
Cotton Wool insulation 0.029    
Diamond 1000    
Diatomaceous earth (Sil-o-cel) 0.06    
Diatomite 0.12    
Earth, dry 1.5    
Engine Oil 0.15    
Ethane (gas) 0.018    
Ether 0.14    
Ethylene (gas) 0.017    
Epoxy 0.35    
Ethylene glycol 0.25    
Feathers 0.034    
Felt insulation 0.04    
Fiberglass 0.04    
Fiber insulating board 0.048    
Fiber hardboard 0.2    
Fire-clay brick 500oC 1.4    
Fluorine (gas) 0.0254    
Foam glass 0.045    
Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 (gas) 0.007    
Dichlorodifluoromethane R-12 (liquid) 0.09    
Gasoline 0.15    
Glass 1.05    
Glass, Pearls, dry 0.18    
Glass, Pearls, saturated 0.76    
Glass, window 0.96    
Glass, wool Insulation 0.04    
Glycerol 0.28    
Gold 310 312 310
Granite 1.7 - 4.0    
Gravel 0.7    
Ground or soil, very moist area 1.4    
Ground or soil, moist area 1.0    
Ground or soil, dry area 0.5    
Ground or soil, very dry area 0.33    
Gypsum board 0.17    
Hairfelt 0.05    
Hardboard high density 0.15    
Hardwoods (oak, maple..) 0.16    
Helium (gas) 0.142    
Honey (12.6% moisture content) 0.5    
Hydrochloric acid (gas) 0.013    
Hydrogen (gas) 0.168    
Hydrogen sulfide (gas) 0.013    
Ice (0oC, 32oF) 2.18    
Insulation materials 0.035 - 0.16    
Iridium 147    
Iron 80 68 60
Iron, wrought 59    
Iron, cast 55    
Kapok insulation 0.034    
Kerosene 0.15    
Krypton (gas) 0.0088    
Lead Pb 35    
Leather, dry 0.14    
Limestone 1.26 - 1.33    
Magnesia insulation (85%) 0.07    
Magnesite 4.15    
Magnesium 156    
Marble 2.08 - 2.94    
Mercury, liquid 8.3    
Methane (gas) 0.030    
Methanol 0.21    
Mica 0.71    
Milk 0.53    
Mineral wool insulation materials, wool blankets .. 0.04    
Molybdenum 138    
Monel 26    
Neon (gas) 0.046    
Neoprene 0.05    
Nickel 91    
Nitric oxide (gas) 0.0238    
Nitrogen (gas) 0.024    
Nitrous oxide (gas) 0.0151    
Nylon 6, Nylon 6/6 0.25    
Oil, machine lubricating SAE 50 0.15    
Olive oil 0.17    
Oxygen (gas) 0.024    
Paper 0.05    
Paraffin Wax 0.25    
Perlite, atmospheric pressure 0.031    
Perlite, vacuum 0.00137    
Phenolic cast resins 0.15    
Phenol-formaldehyde moulding compounds 0.13 - 0.25    
Plaster light 0.2    
Plaster, metal lath 0.47    
Plaster, sand 0.71    
Plaster, wood lath 0.28    
Plasticine 0.65 - 0.8    
Plastics, foamed (insulation materials) 0.03    
Platinum 70 71 72
Plutonium 6.7    
Plywood 0.13    
Polycarbonate 0.19    
Polyester 0.05    
Polyethylene low density, PEL 0.33    
Polyethylene high density, PEH 0.42 - 0.51    
Polyisoprene natural rubber 0.13    
Polyisoprene hard rubber 0.16    
Polymethylmethacrylate 0.17 - 0.25    
Polypropylene, PP 0.1 - 0.22    
Polystyrene, expanded styrofoam 0.03    
Polystyrol 0.043    
Polyurethane foam 0.03    
Porcelain 1.5    
Potato, raw flesh 0.55    
Propane (gas) 0.015    
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) 0.25    
Polyvinylchloride, PVC 0.19    
Pyrex glass 1.005    
Quartz mineral 3    
Radon (gas) 0.0033    
Rock, solid 2 - 7    
Rock, porous volcanic (Tuff) 0.5 - 2.5    
Rock Wool insulation 0.045    
Rubber, cellular 0.045    
Rubber, natural 0.13    
Salmon (73% moisture content) 0.50    
Sand, dry 0.15 - 0.25    
Sand, moist 0.25 - 2    
Sand, saturated 2 - 4    
Sandstone 1.7    
Sawdust 0.08    
Sheep wool 0.039    
Silica aerogel 0.02    
Silicone cast resin 0.15 - 0.32    
Silicone oil 0.1    
Silver 429    
Slag wool 0.042    
Slate 2.01    
Snow (temp < 0oC) 0.05 - 0.25    
Sodium 135 (solid) 86 (liquid)  
Softwoods (fir, pine ..) 0.12    
Soil, clay 1.1    
Soil, with organic matter 0.15 - 2    
Soil, saturated 0.6 - 4    

Steam, saturated

0.0184    
Steam, low pressure 0.0188    
Steel, Carbon 1% 43    
Stainless Steel 16 17 19
Straw slab insulation, compressed 0.09    
Styrofoam 0.033    
Sulfur dioxide (gas) 0.0086    
Sugars 0.087 - 0.22    
Timber 0.14    
Tin Sn 67    
Titanium 22    
Tungsten 174    
Uranium 27.6    
Urethane foam 0.021    
Vacuum 0    
Vermiculite granules 0.065    
Vinyl ester 0.25    
Water 0.58    
Water, vapor (steam)   0.016  
Wheat flour 0.45    
Wood across the grain, white pine 0.12    
Wood across the grain, balsa 0.055    
Wood across the grain, yellow pine, timber 0.147    
Wood, oak 0.17    
Wool, felt 0.07    
Wood wool, slab 0.1 - 0.15    
Xenon (gas) 0.0051    
Zinc Zn 116    
  • 1 W/(m K) = 1 W/(m oC) = 0.85984 kcal/(h m oC) = 0.5779 Btu/(ft h oF) = 0.048 Btu/(in h oF)
  • Unit converter - thermal conductivity
  • What is conductive heat transfer?

Example - Conductive Heat Transfer through an Aluminum Pot versus a Stainless Steel Pot

The conductive heat transfer through a pot wall can be calculated as

q / A = k dT / s

where 

q / A = heat transfer per unit area (W/m2)

k = thermal conductivity  (W/mK)

dT = temperature difference (oC)

s = wall thickness (m)

Conductive Heat Transfer through an Aluminum Pot Wall with thickness 2 mm - temperature difference 80oC

Thermal conductivity for aluminum is 215 W/(m K) (from the table above). Conductive heat transfer per unit area can be calculated as

 q / A = (215 W/(m K)) (80 oC)  /  (2 10-3 m)  

          = 8600000 (W/m2)

          = 8600 (kW/m2)

Conductive Heat Transfer through a Stainless Steel Pot Wall with thickness 2 mm - temperature difference 80oC

Thermal conductivity for stainless steel is 17 W/(m K) (from the table above). Conductive heat transfer per unit area can be calculated as

q / A = (17 W/(m K)) (80 oC)  / (2 10-3 m)  

          = 680000 (W/m2)

          = 680 (kW/m2)

 

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